Jean Chrétien is a Canadian politician who served as his country's Prime Minister from 1993-2003. Of Quebecois origin, he served as a Member of Parliament for nearly forty years, and held several ministerial positions including Minister of Trade, Justice and External Affairs. As Prime Minister, his policy programme - known unofficially as the "Red Book" - was built on pledges of fiscal reform and stability, which led the Liberal Party to three successive election wins under his leadership. He pursued federalism in response to the Quebec independence movement, and a 1995 referendum saw a vote for Canadian unity during his first term in office. After concluding his Prime Ministership, Chrétien has pursued peace work and dialogue at the international level, serving as member of the Fondation Chirac and the Club de Madrid. He read law at Université Laval in Quebec City, and worked as a lawyer prior to his election to Parliament.